A & V

EXPLORERS

POMPEI – NAPOLI

Pompei è un comune in provincia di Napoli ed è famoso in tutto il mondo, insieme a Ercolano, per i suoi scavi archeologici dichiarati Patrimonio dell’Umanità dall’UNESCO.
I primi insediamenti in quel territorio sono databili intorno al IX secolo a.C., ma è a partire dall’VIII secolo a.C. che gli Osci, uno dei primi popoli italici, fondarono Pompei. Pompei all’epoca altro non era che un agglomerato di villaggi cinto da delle mura e posto alle pendici del Vesuvio; ma data la sua vicinanza al fiume Sarno, all’epoca navigabile, ben presto si sviluppò un fiorente commercio. L’importanza strategica di Pompei nel commercio attirò l’attenzione di altri popoli: i Greci, gli Etruschi e, infine, i Sanniti. Circa nel 700 a.C. Pompei divenne una colonia greca e i Greci costruirono un tempio dorico, rinvenuto a seguito degli scavi archeologici, che fu costruito non al centro della città ma in una zona più periferica; fatto che dimostrava che i Greci non avessero intenzione di stabilirsi definitivamente a Pompei ma, al contrario, volessero solamente controllare il porto e i commerci. Ai Greci subentrarono gli Etruschi, i quali si limitarono ad amministrare la città che fungeva solamente come collegamento verso l’entroterra e, quindi, verso Capua; una città fondata proprio dagli Etruschi. Infine, Pompei  passò nelle mani dei Sanniti, un altro popolo italico che abitava l’Italia meridionale e che storicamente era alleato con i Romani. Nonostante le differenti dominazioni, Pompei continuava ad essere una città fiorente grazie al commercio e fu solo con l’ascesa al potere di Augusto che subì un vero e proprio processo di romanizzazione.
Nel 62 d.C. subì una prima grande catastrofe: un fortissimo terremoto distrusse numerosi edifici e causò molti morti e, per quanto i cittadini cercarono di ricostruire la città, il terremoto ebbe un impatto negativo sull’economia. In seguito a quella scossa e alle successive altre scosse, anche se di intensità più lieve, molti abitanti decisero di lasciare la città per trasferirsi altrove. Mentre ancora i pompeiani stavano provvedendo alla ricostruzione della città, un’altra catastrofe si abbatté sulla città: era il 79 d.C. quando il Vesuvio eruttò e cristallizzò per sempre la vita della città. Pompei fu dimenticata fino al XVIII secolo, quando, dopo aver riportato alla luce Ercolano, il Re Carlo III di Borbone fece iniziare degli scavi in quella zona, credendo di essere sulle tracce di Stabia. Fu solo dopo una decina di anni che, nel 1763, ci rese conto che quei resti archeologici non fossero di Stabia ma appartenessero a Pompei, grazie al ritrovamento di un’epigrafe con scritto “Res Publica Pompeianorum”. Fu solo grazie alle pubblicazioni di Carolina Bonaparte che Pompei diventò famosa in tutta l’Europa dell’epoca.
Ad oggi sono riemersi alla luce il Foro, nonché la piazza principale della città, fulcro della vita politica, economica e religiosa; differenti luoghi in cui si svolgevano i mercati; il Castellum Aquae, la cui funzione era quella di raccogliere l’acqua e convogliarla in vari condotti che, a loro volta, portavano l’acqua in città; vari edifici militari, ludici, templi, le terme, l’anfiteatro, la necropoli, le abitazioni. Mentre, per quanto riguarda le ville, sappiamo che queste venivano costruite fuori dal centro abitato e avevano attorno la propria attività agricola, infatti, al momento, non ne sono giunte molte sino a noi.

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